Borzaga, Carlo, and Jacques Defourny, eds. The Emergence of Social Enterprise. Routledge, 2001.

Defourny, Jacques. “From Third Sector to Social Enterprise.” In The Emergence of Social Enterprise, edited by Carlo Borzaga and Jacques Defourny. London: Routledge, 2001.

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. “Social Coops: When Social Enterprises Meet the Cooperative Tradition.” Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity.

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. “Social Enterprise in Europe: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Third Sector.” Policy and Society 29 (2010): 231-232.

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. “Social Enterprise in Europe: Recent Trends and Developments.” Social Enterprise Journal 4.3 (2008): 202-228.

Defourny, Jacques, Patrick Develtere, Bénédicte Fonteneau, and Marthe Nyssens, editors. The Worldwide Making of the Social Economy. Innovations and Changes. Leuven: Acco, 2009.

Doherty, Bob, and Benjamin Huybrechts. “Connecting Producers and Consumers through Fair and Sustainable Value Chains.” Social Enterprise Journal 9 (2013): 4-20.

Huybrechts, Benjamin. Fair Trade Organizations and Social Enterprise: Social Innovation through Hybrid Organization Models. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Huybrechts, Benjamin. “Fair Trade Organizations in Belgium: Unity in Diversity?” Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2010): 217-240.

Huybrechts, Benjamin. “Social Enterprise, Social Innovation and Alternative Economies: Insights from Fair Trade and Renewable Energy.” In Alternative Economies and Spaces. New Perspectives for a Sustainable Economy, edited by Hans-Martin Zademach and Sebastian Hillebrand. Bielefeld: Transcript, 2013.

Huybrechts, Benjamin, and Leonardo Becchetti. “The Dynamics of Fair Trade as a Mixed-form Market.” Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2008): 733-750.

Huybrechts, Benjamin, and Jacques Defourny. “Are Fair Trade Organizations necessarily Social Enterprises?” Social Enterprise Journal 4 (2008): 186-201.

Kerlin, Janelle A. “Social Enterprise in the United States and Europe: Understanding and Learning from the Differences.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 17.3 (2006): 246-262.

Kim, Shin-Yang, and Jacques Defourny. “Emerging Models of Social Enterprise in Eastern Asia: A Cross-Country Analysis.” Social Enterprise Journal 7 (2011): 86-111.

Laville, Jean-Louis, and Marthe Nyssens. “The Social Enterprise: Towards a Theoretical Socio-Economic Approach.” In The Emergence of Social Enterprise, edited by Carlo Borzaga and Jacques Defourny, 312-332. London: Routledge, 2001.

Martin, Roger, and Sally Osberg. 2007. “Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition.” Stanford Social Innovation Review (2007): 28-39.

The authors argue for a less inclusive definition than the common “catch-all” usage.

Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille. “Nonprofit Organisations and Social Economy: Two Ways of Understanding the Third Sector.” Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 70 (1999): 501-520.

Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille and Michel Marée. “The Limits of the Economic Value in Measuring the Global Performance of Social Innovation.” In Social innovation: Blurring Boundaries to Reconfigure Markets, edited by Alex Nicholls and Alex Murdock. Palgrave McMillan, 2012.

Nicholls, Alex and Benjamin Huybrechts. “Social Entrepreneurship: Definitions, Drivers and Challenges.” In Social Entrepreneurship and Social Business: An Introduction and Discussion With Case Studies, edited by Christine Volkmann, Kim Oliver Tokarski, and Kati Ernst, 31-48. Wiesbaden: Springer-Gabler, 2012.

Nyssens, Marthe, ed. Social Enterprise: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society. Routledge, 2006.

Pearce, John, and Alan Kay. Social Enterprise in Anytown. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 2003.